Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD or PIGD) is a modern biomolecular analysis of abnormalities in the embryo. PGD can be performed solely under the in vitro fertilisation programmes. The examination of embryos prior to implantation allows to transfer reliably "healthy babies" into the uterine cavity, thereby increasing the chances of achieving and carrying a successful pregnancy and giving birth to a healthy child. PGD's reliability amounts to 95-97%.
MAMA RIGA Clinic recommends performing PGA to all couples of senior reproductive age since the risk of giving birth to children with various syndromes substantially increases after 35. For example, by 40 the risk of having a child with Down syndrome (abnormality of the 21st pair of chromosomes) is 10 times greater compared to the 25-year-old woman, and by 45 the risk increases by 40 times! For women over 45, this probability is as high as 1:20. PGD – a molecular genetic diagnosis – is also recommended in cases of infertility of unknown origin and chronic miscarriage.
· existence of genetic pathology in a male/female;
· existence of genetic pathology in families of both parents;
· history of the birth of children with genetic pathologies;
· history of inevitable miscarriage;
· history of failed IVF protocols;
· woman's age is over 35;
· presence of X-linked hereditary diseases in a male/female.
· Fanconi's anaemia;
· Huntington's disease;
· Gaucher's disease;
· myotonic dystrophy;
· cystic fibrosis;
· retinitis pigmentosa;
· polycystic kidney disease;
· Down syndrome;
· Edwards syndrome;
· Alport syndrome;
· up to 150 various genetic diseases.
Molecular genetic diagnosis PGD at MAMA Riga Clinic reliably increases the frequency of pregnancy under IVF, minimises the risks of miscarriage and birth of children with pathologies.
MAMA RIGA Clinic offers PGA performed utilising the FISH (Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation) method. For analysing a developing embryo using a special micromanipulation device, a biopsy (removal) of cells is necessary, which will be a material for the examination. Usually, genetic diagnosis is performed involving 3-5-day-old embryos.
At MAMA RIGA Clinic, the biopsy of embryo cells is performed mainly on the 4th day of embryo development using a special technique, which increases the reliability of results and is notable for its safety. MAMA RIGA Clinic has an extensive experience of conducting biopsies on the 4-day of the embryo's growth.
A nucleus containing all the genetic material is separated in a special way from the embryonic cell received after the biopsy. Next, the DNA-probes specially selected for determining the chromosomal of interest and painted with various fluorescent (luminous) dyes are introduced into the nucleus by using a number of molecular genetic procedures.
Screening by the FISH method results in a nucleus image where the signals from the studied chromosomes are represented in the form of coloured dots. The analysis of the resulting image allows us to identify examined chromosomes and define possible chromosomal abnormalities.
The main genetic pathology that can be detected using PGD-FISH is numerical chromosomal mutations that are the cause of many pathological disorders of foetal growth.
MAMA RIGA Clinic offers diagnostics for the three most common aneuploidies (X, Y and 21st chromosome) and unique PGD-LiveScreen-9 diagnostics — the simultaneous detection of aneuploidy in 9 chromosomes (21, X, Y, 13, 16, 18, 22, 8, 9).
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